Q. When a seat becomes vacant in the House of Representatives before a term is over, who decides who will fill that seat for the remainder of the term?
When a seat in the House of Representatives becomes empty due to death, resignation, or other reason, there is always a special election held to determine who will become the new representative — the seat is NEVER appointed.
Each state has its own laws on how these special elections are carried out, but the bottom line is that every Representative is always an elected representative.
On the other hand, if a U.S. Senate seat goes vacant, each state has its own laws on how to fill that seat. In some cases, the state’s governor appoints a new Senator, and in other cases a special election may be called for.